International problems Journal Archive
International problems Vol. 68 No. 2-3/2016
REČ GOSTUJUĆEG UREDNIKA
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):149-150
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):151-171
Globalization as a social concept based on the principle of universalism announced the beginning of a new era and a model of international society, which would mean a sort of end of historical cycles. Optimistic faith in progress was one of the driving ideas of this, one of the most popular concepts of the global society. Proponents of globalization have claimed that the triumph of the West in the Cold War competition confirmed the superiority of the liberal model and represented a break with the real political perception of international politics. In this way, as argued, the conditions were created for the societies around the world to start their own reconstruction, creating a global culture and universalization of democratic governance, permanently overcoming war and establishing the lasting peace. The nature and dynamics of relationships in international politics unambiguously confirmed that the social and political reality has not developed as announced by the proponents of globalization, at the beginning of the last decade of the twentieth century. The modern world fell into a time of confusion, uncertainty and insecurity, growing into a global risk society. Strong rapprochement of nations, political communities and cultures and intensifying their interdependence encouraged more intense disagreement, the emergence of new national models, radicalizing definitions of identity to the most devastating forms. Globalization has not transformed the world, and the concept of global governance of the world proved to be a failed attempt, manifesting a variety of system dysfunctions. At the same time, the more pronounced interdependence of contemporary societies, based on the technological achievements of the postindustrial world, has expanded the range of issues that require the global approach.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):172-192
Scientific and professional community, and political subjects, both at national and at the international level have a unique position that organized crime is now one of the most dangerous security threats. However, such consent does not exist in terms of conceptual determination, identification, dimensions and of choice of methods to counter organized crime. The first part of this article describes the main trends in the conceptual definition of organized crime, social and political context of the use of this term and the subjects who have contributed to it becoming one of the main concepts of modern scientific and professional discussions about crime. The second part indicates the dynamics of organized crime as a security threat in the territory of Europe, and the last part presents and analyzes the development of organized crime in Serbia and attitudes of scientists and experts, political entities and state bodies and institutions towards this phenomenon.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):193-208
The second half of the 20th century will be remembered as the period of the biggest liberalisation in history in the area of international economic relationships. Many factors served that fact. First of all, attempts to eliminate circumstances which were the root cause of previous world wars. Along with liberalisation of the trade processes, there was a process of growth of public debt which significantly restricted public institution activities. Due to lack of funds in the budget, countries were forced to mortgage and pay a significant amount of money for the rates of interest. Developing countries are especially in a very difficult position because they are under constant pressure and are forced to accept unfavorable arrangements in order to make their system work at all. The circumstances which were mentioned are the hardest for the citizens, primarily due to the lack of funds for the financing of the public sector. Because of the various restrictions, the health system, education and public administration, have a constant deficit and are not able to follow the needs of the local population. Dysfunction of national institutions represents a security problem par excellence.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):209-224
Organized crime as a negative social phenomenon is certainly a problem of the state and its services. To effectively counter organized crime a basic prerequisite is knowledge of conditions or circumstances that contribute to its existence and operation. It is, therefore, very important to determine the most criminogenic factors that promote organized criminal activity in certain areas of the country. In this paper, in addition to general considerations on the concept of prevention, a special attention is given to factors that may adversely affect the expression of organized crime. These factors are presenting a solid basis for further operationalization in order to determine the possibility of manifestation of organized crime. Determination of their role is of particular importance because they have a wide use, primarily in preventive countering organized crime. However, the dynamism and flexibility of organized crime social changes require constant monitoring and updating of existing factors for an objective knowledge of the impact on the expression and activity of organized crime.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):225-241
This paper will discuss the issue of health (infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, bioterrorism) from the standpoint of national and international security, as well as from the standpoint of contemporary security threats. The main purpose of this paper is to show why it is important to view the health through the lens of security, as well as to show how health security has been treated in the national security strategies of individual countries. On the other hand, this paper will analyze the state of public health in the Republic of Serbia, which is significantly degraded after the events that marked the last decade of the 20th century, and indicate that much more effort must be undertaken towards the securitization of public health, and institutional observation of public health through the lens of security. Otherwise, in the future, Serbia may face a serious deficiency of capacities for the prevention, suppression and rehabilitation pandemic and other health threats, and the consequences that these threats can have on the national security.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):242-255
Infectious diseases are recognized as one of the leading security risks in the changing security architecture of the contemporary world, because of the dimensions of the possible consequences that can provoke, as evidenced by the epidemics that changed the history of mankind in the past (plague, smallpox, Spanish influenza) and the consequences that have been left behind the epidemic of Ebola or AIDS as interplanetary plague of the new era. Migrations and climate changes present the risk of emergency of new or increasing the incidence of existing infectious diseases. Misuse of microorganisms and their products for terrorist purposes-bioterrorism, today also represents a major security risk and real danger, especially because of the possibility of misuse of genetic engineering and biotechnology for the improvement of biological weapons. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the resources at the national and international level for an adequate response to the possible epidemics, as well as prevention and response in the event of bioterrorist acts.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):257-264
The development of modern advanced technology has contributed to the significant increase in the quality of living, and yet it has brought a number of problems that are difficult to reliably predict and eliminate. Global technogenic danger, which knows for no borders, should be treated as a challenge and an alarm for all national and international institutions which calls for working together to improve the solutions that will ensure the safety of population, facilities, and the planet as a whole. Russiaʼs new solutions applied in automated monitoring, alerting and crisis management can contribute to the joint effort in responding to this challenge. The Russian model is based on the search of a plausible way how to replace the ongoing mostly administrative and regulatory system, primarily dependent on the quality of human resources, by reliable software and technical solutions that will operate independently of the human capabilities and will.
International problems, 2016 68(2-3):265-271
Risks of mass disasters on a daily basis increase as well as possible consequences for human health, material goods and the functioning of the community, so that at the state level raises the imperative for coordinated activities to reduce risk and consequences of possible emergency situations. The aim of this paper is to describe the level of preparedness of the health system of Montenegro for emergency circumstances which directly threaten the lives and health of people on the basis of analysis of the system reaction in events accompanied by a large number of victims, the wounded and sick. Positive reactions were noticed, but also weaknesses which indicate that the National Strategy for Emergency Situations must be improved and that the health system must be prepared for a prompt response in emergency situations. Therefore, the preventive action to strengthen and improve the personnel, equipment, infrastructure, as well as continuous education, are necessary. It is also important to define the risks, plan responses and readiness to adapt to the new situation.