Latest issue: International problems Vol. 75 No. 4/2023
International problems, 2023 75(4):621-647
The international dimension characterizes contemporary forms of organized crime (OC) and terrorism. In contrast, in most countries’ current criminal justice systems, the principle of sovereignty, based on the exclusive competence of the national state in combating crime, is still dominant in the current criminal justice systems, both on a normative and practical basis level. This contradiction significantly impacts the effectiveness of controlling the mentioned forms of crime. As a solution, the development of existing and normative regulation and practical application of new forms of international criminal law cooperation (ICC) is imposed, which is highlighted as one of the dominant goals in a series of international strategic documents related to the suppression and prevention of modern forms of crime. This especially applies to the strategic documents of the European Union (EU), within which forms of the ICC based on modern principles, such as the principle of “mutual recognition of court decisions,” have been developed. Therefore, implementing the mentioned forms of the ICC in the criminal legislation of Serbia should be one of the strategic goals of our country joining the EU. As part of this paper, an analysis of the content of relevant EU strategic documents will be carried out, in which the ICC in the control of OC and terrorism is highlighted as one of the strategic goals, and then the corresponding content of domestic strategies, which refer to the same matter, intending to define a proposal for revision valid and introduce relevant contents, related to the ICC, into future domestic strategic documents.
International problems, 2023 75(4):595-620
Contemporary terrorism is one of the critical social problems, a serious threat for life, basic rights of citizens and values of society. However, its financing it is recognized as a special security risk, as an illegal and very dangerous practice that represents a significant threat to national and international security. Terrorist organizations and their activities such as planning, preparation and execution of terrorist acts they are most often supported by funds from illegal sources, although the fact that in quite a few cases, financing is done with completely legal means. Given on the role that financing has, as an indispensable element of the fight against terrorism, is imposed precisely the fight against its financing. Due to the national and international character of this criminal activities, it is necessary that the efforts invested in suppressing financing and in general terrorism have a transnational character with a large investment in mutual cooperation. Only some of the efforts are the application of strict financial regulations, the monitoring of suspicious transactions and freezing the assets of suspected individuals or organizations involved in terrorism. Text aims to point out the institutionalized efforts that have been made so far in the field of combating the financing of terrorism. In addition, a review will be made mechanisms established by the Republic of Serbia in the field of combating the financing of terrorism, in accordance with the efforts of the international community in that field.
International problems, 2023 75(4):621-647
The authors consider the defense systems of Switzerland, Sweden and Serbia, organized according to the concept of total defense and determined to organize defense by engaging all the resources of society. Total defense represents a rational and integrated form of security and defense organization of the subjects of society. It includes military, civil and other forms of defense and represents a choice of militarily neutral states, as well as those that are part of defense alliances (NATO), whereby a significant factor is the coordinated action of the system component and the development of national logistics. The work seeks to gain insight into perceptions of challenges, risks and threats, elements of defense policy and organization of the defense system by reviewing and analyzing publicly available strategic and other documents important for the security and defense of selected countries. The main hypothesis of the paper is that the organization and implementation of total defense in Switzerland and Sweden can represent good examples for countries, such as Serbia, which strive to organize their defense according to the principle of total defense. Switzerland is a permanently neutral country, while Sweden and Serbia are militarily neutral, although Sweden has applied for NATO membership. Different war pasts, strategic positions, perceptions of challenges, risks and threats, demographic structure, economic development and allocations for defense and other states’ characteristics also result in differences in the concept and organization of defense as a whole or by segment. States view security holistically, and defense systems as complex and dynamic systems, dependent on external and internal factors, which requires their constant adaptation to changes in the environment and within the limits of economic possibilities.
International problems, 2023 75(4):649-665
Developing the state’s ability to project “soft power” is becoming a specialty of all major players in the international arena. It is an integrative part of foreign policy with long-term goals and with its cultural, ideological, political or humanitarian resources it offers an attraction to the country towards which it is directed. There is a theoretical agreement between American and Russian authors about the potential contents of “soft power”. The concept of “soft power” given by Professor Nye (Joseph Nye) was also accepted by Russian academics. However, in the practice of “soft power”, Russia is below the level of the USA, China and the European Union, except in the sphere of humanitarian action. Although humanitarian cooperation is implemented in a very broad scope, for the purposes of this work, a narrower interpretation will be applied, which implies immediate humanitarian aid, humanitarian operations and actions carried out in situations of natural and man-made disasters, humanitarian crises and armed conflicts. Its uniqueness lies primarily in the specificity of Russia’s national security system and the existence of the powerful Ministry for Emergency Situations and Elimination of the Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters, which offers a wide range capabilities for the needs of international humanitarian cooperation. In the paper, the Serbian-Russian humanitarian center will be shown in particular, as a good example of humanitarian cooperation, but also a projection of the “soft power” of Russia.
International problems, 2023 75(4):667-684
Organized crime represents a serious threat to the security, economy, and sometimes for the legal order of the country. Criminal groups not only use the achievements of information and communication technologies (ICT) for the expansion of the organization, communication and management of activities and resources, but also invest, through secret and illegal channels, to develop their own applications of their own applications that they will use for their activities. Organized criminal groups themselves, the most powerful ones, have their ICT experts whose goal is not only to protect communication channels, but also to devise new ways of “circumventing” and neutralizing police measures and techniques for detecting and monitoring their activities. Members of organized criminal groups to use those communication applications that enable encrypted transmission to electronic devices using the necessary operating system, enabling the installation of the application and the establishment of a connection to the Internet in order to enable the necessary protected communication. There are also applications that allow the entire device to be encrypted, making it difficult to find its contents or discover the necessary information and evidence. This paper presents the characteristics of organized crime and their operating modes, with an emphasis on the use of cryptographic techniques. Case studies are illustrating the size and scope of abuse of encryption by organized criminal groups, by data on cases which were processed, as well as challenges in opposing the abuse of cryptography from a technical-technological and legal aspect, after that we provided guideline for improving the mechanisms for reduction of organized crime.
International problems, 2023 75(4):685-710
In the modern digital era, social media are playing an important role in in the dissemination of information. Nevertheless, phenomena such as fake news have the potential to considerably compromise user trust. Concurrently, artificial intelligence unveils remarkable opportunities while also introducing great challenges. Artificial intelligence is already employed in identifying fake news on social media platforms, rendering this a crucial area of exploration due to its profound implications on society and politics. This paper examines the application of artificial intelligence on social media, with a particular focus on detecting fake news, through an analysis of the attitudes of the student population. The findings suggest a limited awareness among students about these kinds of programs, highlighting a necessity for the inclusion of these topics in future university curricula. A majority of students believe that artificial intelligence algorithms for detecting fake news are good for society, compared to those who believe the contrary. The results indicate a prevailing concern regarding the potential misuse of these technologies and their impact on freedom of speech, thereby emphasizing the need for impartial oversight and regulation. The research has demonstrated that students are aware of the advantages and limitations of applying artificial intelligence on social media, with older students exhibiting greater receptiveness towards these programs.